He therefore terminated the arrangement whether marriage or engagement between Woizero Menen and Ras Leulseged, and sent her to Harar to marry Dejazmach Tafari Makonnen. Indeed, he was among the leaders who fought on the side of Dejazmach Tafari Makonnen in the Battle of Segale , and died in that battle. The account given in the Autobiography of the Emperor, My Life and Ethiopia's Progress , mentions no previous marriage or children of Empress Menen and no such order by Iyasu, but states only that at the age of 20, they were married by their own mutual consent, and describes her as "a woman without any malice whatsoever";  when Tafari Makonnen became Emperor of Ethiopia as Haile Selassie I, Menen Asfaw was crowned as Empress at his side.
Empress Menen had no children by Ras Leulseged. Empress Menen was active in promoting women's issues in Ethiopia, was Patroness of the Ethiopian Red Cross , and the Ethiopian Women's Charitable Organization, she was also patroness of the Jerusalem Society that arranged for pilgrimages to the Holy Land. She founded the Empress Menen School for Girls in Addis Ababa , the first all- girls school which had both boarding and day students.
Girls from all over the Empire were brought to the school to receive a modern education, encouraged by the Empress who visited it often and presided over its graduation ceremonies; the Empress gave generously, as well as sponsored programs for the poor, ill and disabled. She was also a devoutly religious woman who did much to support the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church , she built, renovated and endowed numerous churches in Ethiopia and in the Holy Land.
Prominent among these are the St. Mary of Zion at Axum, but did not live to see it completed and dedicated. When the Empress was exiled from Ethiopia during the Italian occupation from to , she made a pledge to the Virgin Mary at the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem , promising to give her crown to the church if Ethiopia were liberated from occupation; the Empress made numerous pilgrimages to Holy Sites in then British-ruled Palestine, in Syria and in Lebanon, during her exile to pray for her occupied homeland.
Following the return of Emperor Haile Selassie I and his family to Ethiopia in , a replica of the crown was made for future Empresses, but the original crown that Empress Menen was crowned with at her husband's side in was sent to the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. Empress Menen, although often seen wearing a tiara at public events that called for it, would never again wear a full crown. Empress Menen performed perfectly in the role of Empress-consort.
In her public role she combined religious piety, concern for social causes, and support for development schemes with the majesty of her Imperial status. Outwardly she was the dutiful wife, visiting schools, churches, exhibitions and model farms, attending public and state events at her husband's side or by herself, she took no public stand on political or policy issues. Behind the scenes however, she was the Emperor's most trusted advisor, quietly offering advice on a whole range of issues, she avoided the publicly political role that her predecessor as Empress-consort, Empress Taytu Betul , had taken, which had caused deep resentment in government circles during the reign of Menelik II.
The Empress and some of her family were placed under house arrest briefly during the Imperial Guard coup attempt against her husband at her villa outside the Guenete Leul Palace grounds in northern Addis Ababa. Following the return of the Emperor and the crushing of the coup attempt, there was much speculation as to the conduct of the Crown Prince, who had been proclaimed monarch by the coup leaders, it was noted that the Crown Prince had accompanied his mother in a drive through the palace grounds, making stops at Imperial Guard posts to exchange pleasantries with the guards, on the night before the coup was launched.
The ailing Empress had been urged to visit the posts by security officials, who were concerned about the soldiers' morale, and perhaps had an idea that something was brewing; the appearance of the Empress with the Crown Prince at her side may have been used by coup leaders as an indication to their followers that the Empress might sympathise with a movement that brought her favored son to the throne.
It is extremely unlikely that either the Empress or the Prince had any idea of what was being plotted. However, a cloud of suspicion never left the Crown Prince, and the Empress was deeply saddened by this. Following her death in , the Empress was buried in the crypt of Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa among the tombs of her children.
Prime Minister Aklilu Hapte-Wold delivered her eulogy paying tribute to her charity, her piety, and her role as advisor and helpmate to the Emperor, as well as her personal kindness and goodness. On the third day memorial and commemoration after the funeral, the Emperor himself paid tribute to his wife by saying that although the Prime Minister had aptly described what kind of person his late wife had been, he wanted to say that during their five decades of marriage, not once had it been necessary to have a third party mediate between him and his wife, and that their marriage had been one of peace and mutual support.
The Funeral of Her Imperial Majesty Empress Menen
Later, the Emperor built a pair of grand sarcophagi in the north transept of Holy Trinity Cathedral's nave, in order to transfer his wife's remains there and eventually be buried at her side himself, but due to the revolution, the Emperor was not buried there after his death, and the Empress remained in her original tomb in the crypt. During the ceremonial burial of her husband's remains in November , the remains of Empress Menen were also disinterred from the crypt tomb, and placed in the sarcophagus next to her husband in the nave of the Cathedral, as he had originally intended.
There is some controversy as to Haile Selassie's eldest daughter, Princess Romanework. While the living members of the royal family state that Romanework is the eldest daughter of Empress Menen,  it has been asserted that Princess Romanework is actually the daughter of a previous union of the emperor with Woizero Altayech;  the emperor's own autobiography makes no mention of a previous marriage or having fathered children with anyone other than Empress Menen. Prince Makonnen was married to Princess Sara Gizaw. Princess Romanework married Dejazmatch Beyene Merid.
Princess Tsehai married Lt. General Abiye Abebe. Born in the city of Harar , Princess Tenagnework received her title upon her father's succession to the imperial throne in November Princess Tenagnework was first married to Ras Desta Damtew , a member of the prominent aristocratic Addisge clan. In , following the invasion of Ethiopia by Italy , the imperial family was forced to flee into exile at Fairfield House, Bath in England. However, Ras Desta remained behind to command the imperial forces fighting in the south of the country.
Ras Desta was summarily executed by the fascist forces. While in exile, Princess Tenagnework gave birth to Emebet Tsige Mariam during a brief union with Ato Abebe Retta , who served in ambassadorial and other roles in the post-war imperial government, would become president of the Imperial Senate after their separation.
In , with British assistance, Emperor Haile Selassie was restored to his throne, Princess Tenagnework and her children returned to Ethiopia. Her elder son, Amha Desta, died shortly before the return.
Bitwoded Andargachew was appointed Governor-General of Begemder and Semien Provinces, the couple were based in Gondar ; the couple served as the Vice-Roy and Vice-Rein of Eritrea , representing the Emperor there when the former Italian colony was federated to Ethiopia in Bitwoded Andargachew served in many other governmental posts, he was elevated to the title of Ras, served as Minister of the Interior, was made an Imperial Senator and a Crown Councilor.
Princess Tenagnework and Ras Andargatchew Messai were the parents of a daughter, Mentewab Andargachew, who died in childhood. After the death of her mother, Empress Menen Asfaw in , Princess Tenagnework became the most visible and foremost woman at the imperial court and played an ever-increasing advisory role to the monarch.
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The princess was described as the child most like her father in temperament and character. A strong personality credited with conservative views, she was regarded as a guardian of the institution of the monarchy, she was perceived as a leader of the traditionalist element within the nobility, seen as opposing constitutional and land tenure reform.
Princess Tenagnework and the rest of the imperial family were arrested on 11 September , the day before Emperor Haile Selassie was formally deposed by the Derg.
After a brief time when the family were kept under house arrest at the home of the late Duke of Harar, they were moved to the Akaki Prison known as "Alem Bekagn" which translates to "I have had enough of this world". Princess Tenagnework and the other royal women were kept in the separate women's section of the prison, Princess Tenagnework received the distinction of being listed as "Prisoner 1" in all Ethiopia.
On 24 November , the Dergue executed sixty-one former officials of the imperial government without trial. Among the many relatives and associates of the Princess to die at this time, was her remaining son, Rear Admiral Prince Iskinder Desta; the Princess was allowed a final visit with her father only a few days before his death in August That same year her daughter Tsige Mariam Abebe Retta died by committing suicide, as well as her niece Princess Ijigayehu Asfaw Wossen who died in prison due to illness, her husband, Ras Andargachew Messai, outside Ethiopia when the monarchy fell, died after a long illness in London a few years later.
After an imprisonment of fifteen years, the women of the imperial family were freed in A year the imprisoned males of the family were released. After living in Addis Ababa for a little over a year, Princess Tenagnework and a few of the other members of the imperial family were allowed to depart into exile. Princess Tenagnework settled in her second exile, in the Virginia suburbs of Washington D.
The imperial family was living in the Washington area and in London at the time; the death of her brother in affected her, her health began to decline. She returned permanently to Ethiopia in Princess Tenagnework died in Addis Ababa on 6 April On 13 April, a funeral mass for the Princess was led by Abune Paulos , Patriarch of the Ethiopian Church, was attended by most of the other hierarchs of the Ethiopian Church.
Much of the old Ethiopian nobility and many members of the general public attended, she was buried in the crypt of Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa near the graves of her family. President of the Ethiopian Women's Ch. She graduated as a state registered children's nurse on 25 August After the restoration of her father in , she married Lieutenant-General Lij Abiye Abebe , moved with him to Welega Province when he was appointed governor there, she worked at Dessie Hospital in Ethiopia.
Princess Tsehai died in Nekemte on 17 August , from complications during childbirth , her baby did not survive. After the revolution, the hospital was renamed the Armed Forces General Hospital. Imperial Coronation Medal. Rastafari Rastafari , sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the s. Scholars of religion and related fields have classified it as both a new religious movement and a social movement. There is no central authority in control of the movement and much diversity exists among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas.
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Rastas refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible , as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who resides within each individual.
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Haile Selassie , the Emperor of Ethiopia between and , is given central importance. Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah on Earth and as the Second Coming of Jesus Christ , another figure whom practitioners revere. Other Rastas regard Haile Selassie not as Jah incarnate but as a human prophet who recognized the inner divinity in every individual.
Rastafari is Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora, which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or " Babylon ". Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora in either Ethiopia or Africa more referring to this continent as the Promised Land of "Zion". Rastas refer to their practices as " livity ".
Communal meetings are known as "groundations", are typified by music, chanting and the smoking of cannabis , the latter being regarded as a sacrament with beneficial properties. Rastas place emphasis on what they regard as living "naturally", adhering to ital dietary requirements, twisting their hair into dreadlocks , following patriarchal gender roles.
Rastafari originated among impoverished and disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities in s Jamaica, its Afrocentric ideology was a reaction against Jamaica's then-dominant British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey ; the movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell , proclaimed that Haile Selassie's crowning as emperor in fulfilled a Biblical prophecy.
By the s, Rastafari's counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the s and s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley.