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From the Journals of a Traveller in the East. Fairbank and Kwang-Ching Liu. Fairbank and Albert Feuerwerker. Islamic Society and Civilization. Latin America since From Independence to c. Alexander Street Press, [], cop. Tucker, editor ; Priscilla Roberts, editor, documents vol. Wiley Blackwell, , cop. Smith and Sadie Pickup. Papanghelis and Antonios Rengakos. Willink ; edited by W.

Kim On Chong- Gossard.. Kenney ; advisory ed.

Bibliographie de Civilisation médiévale - online (BCM-O)

Nisbet and Claude Rawson. The Nineteenth Century, c. Caserio and Clement Hawes. Frier, Foreword by Ansley J. Scheindlin, and Michael Sells. Cousland and James R. Bolhuis and Martin Everaert ; foreword by Robert C.

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Berwick and Noam Chomsky. Richard Page and Aaron D. Enfield, Paul Kockelman, Jack Sidnell. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi.

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English in Britain and overseas: Smith and Adam Ledgeway. Wiley- Blackwell, , cop. Who Sets the Agenda? Studies on the Ancient Commentaries on Plato's Phaedo. Bowen and Christian Wildberg.. Eysturlid, editors ; foreword by Dennis Showalter. Cleary and Gary M. Mitchell and Frances M.

Young ; assistant editor, K. Early medieval christianities, c. Noble and Julia M. Christianity in Western Europe, c. Brown and Timothy Tackett. The central islamic lands from pre-islamic times to the first world war. The central Islamic lands since Davies and Louis Finkelstein. Wood, Songsuk Susan Hahn. Sweeney, Michele Renee Salzman. Oxford University Press, cop. Bloomsbury Academic, , cop. Princeton University press, , cop. Fortenbaugh, with contributions on the Arabic material by Dimitri Gutas.. Ann Herring, Alan C. From First-Order Logic to the Web. The University of Chicago press,?

Owens, Sheldon Stryker, Norman Goodman. Stroebe, Wolfgang Stroebe, Robert O. Rosenblatt and Elizabeth Wieling. The adoption of this law was an important step in the fight against pollution and therefore for the protection of water resources as part of the common heritage. The legislator has provided for the creation of an administrative district recognizing the specificity of the watershed and has adopted a series of offences applicable against polluters. Then, the law of 3 January [18] proceeds for the first time to the unification of the legal regime of water.

Thus, the right to water has been combined around four main principles: the principle of the unity of water resources [19] , the principle of water heritage , the affirmation of the general interest character of water protection and the principle of balanced and sustainable management of water resources [20].

This law provides for a single system of authorisation and declaration for all works, installations, works and activities carried out for non-domestic purposes, depending on the importance of the work, the risks involved, the dangers and the impact on health, safety and the free flow of water. The SDAGE is a planning document drawn up for a period of 6 years at the scale of the hydrographic basin, while the SAGE is drawn up on a much smaller scale: that of the sub-basin, in particular to take into account the specificities of a territory.

Since this law, urban planning documents territorial coherence scheme, local urban planning plan and municipal map must be compatible or made compatible with the SDAGE. Finally, the Water Act of 30 December [24] incorporates the principles affirmed in the Act. Among the major innovations it brings are the recognition of the priority use of water for human consumption and the recognition of the right of access to drinking water under conditions that are economically acceptable to all [25].

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In addition, this law strengthens the legal scope of the SAGE, since it now acquires, like the SDAGE, the character of a document with full regulatory value: the regulations and the cartographic documents it contains are expressly declared by the law as enforceable against third parties for the execution of any installation, work, work or activity subject to declaration or authorization under the water police [26]. This recognition requires that the SAGE project be subject to a prior public inquiry.

Figure 3. The hydrographic basins in France. While specialized water institutions at the national level have an essentially advisory role [28] , those in the river basin have real decision-making power. First of all, the prefect basin coordinator [29] has sufficient expertise to ensure the coherence and rationalization of local water management.

In addition, he chairs the basin administrative commission established in each basin or group of basins. The role of this commission is mainly advisory, as it assists the basin coordinator prefect in the exercise of his powers and is consulted on the draft SDAGE, programme of measures and flood forecasting master plan. Figure 4. Illustration of participatory democracy.

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In metropolitan France, the role of the basin committee in implementing the principle of participation in the water sector is reflected in the commission on the aquatic natural environment of the basin. In addition, the water agencies [33] have a specific role in implementing the principle of balanced and sustainable management of water resources.

They were created by the law. Until , they were called basin financial agencies and in principle operated in parallel with a basin committee. Today, water agencies have the status of public administrative State institutions [34] , they are established in each basin or grouping of river basins and placed under the supervision of the Minister for the Environment. The water agencies implement the SDAGEs and SAGEs by promoting balanced and economical management of water resources and aquatic environments, drinking water supply, flood control and the sustainable development of economic activities.

In addition to these missions, they conduct a land policy to safeguard wetlands [35] approved by the basin committee: they can acquire land in these areas in order to fight, for example, against soil artificialisation. This wetland protection policy is old.

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Finally, more recently, the law of 8 August for the reconquest of biodiversity, nature and landscapes extended the mission of the water agencies to the protection of the marine environment and to terrestrial and marine biodiversity. Figure 5. Water agencies in metropolitan France. In accordance with the principle of prevention and the principle of repairing environmental damage, water agencies establish and collect charges from public or private persons for water pollution, for the modernisation of collection networks, for diffuse pollution, for abstraction from water resources, for water storage during low-water periods, for obstacles on watercourses and for the protection of the aquatic environment [36].

The budget of the water agencies is funded by these fees, which are redistributed in the form of grants, granted to local decision-makers or contracting authorities municipalities, groups of municipalities, farmers, industrialists to finance mainly actions to combat water pollution. Thus, it is domestic consumers who mainly finance the budget of these agencies and not farmers or industrialists as one might think. Figure 6.

Mayotte is the only department that does not have a Water Office, but it does have a basin committee. At the sub-basin level, a local water commission is created by the prefect to develop, review and monitor the application of the SAGE [38]. Finally, in France there are other structures likely to participate in water management and protection, such as territorial public basin institutions [39] , public interest groups in the environmental field trade union associations of owners and, more generally, environmental protection associations.

Traditionally, international law approaches water resources according to the principle of territorial sovereignty. It recognizes that States have the exclusive power to regulate, as they see fit and in accordance with domestic law, activities within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions [40]. The principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources was recognized in the s as a component of the right of peoples to self-determination [41]. It is only the explicit formulation of the principle of territorial sovereignty over natural resources. Moreover, this right does not take into account the unequal distribution of the natural water cycle, which is by nature global.

Thus, the right of peoples to dispose of their resources does not guarantee access to water and its protection, and it does not exclude the possibility of submitting water to market laws. Figure 7.