Among the items using interchangeable parts were some sewing machine brands and bicycles. The development of these modern machine tools and machining practices made possible the development of modern industry capable of mass production; however, large scale industrial production did not develop in the U.
The charter for the First Bank of the United States expired in Its absence caused serious difficulties for the national government trying to finance the War of over the refusal of New England bankers to help out. President James Madison reverses earlier Jeffersonian opposition to banking, and secured the opening of a new national bank.
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The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in Its leading executive was Philadelphia banker Nicholas Biddle. There were three economic downturns in the early 19th century. The first was the result of the Embargo Act of , which shut off most international shipping and trade due to the Napoleonic Wars. The embargo caused a depression in cities and industries dependent on European trade. The other two downturns were depressions accompanied by significant periods of deflation during the early 19th century. The first and most severe was during the depression from to when prices of agricultural commodities declined by almost 50 percent.
A credit contraction caused by a financial crisis in England drained specie out of the U. The Bank of the United States also contracted its lending. The price of agricultural commodities fell by almost 50 percent from the high in to the low in , and did not recover until the late s, although to a significantly lower price level. Most damaging was the price of cotton, the U. Food crop prices, which had been high because of the famine of that was caused by the year without a summer , fell after the return of normal harvests in Improved transportation, mainly from turnpikes, significantly lowered transportation costs.
The third economic downturn was the depression of the late s to , following the Panic of , when the money supply in the United States contracted by about 34 percent with prices falling by 33 percent.
The magnitude of this contraction is matched only by the Great Depression. In order to dampen speculation in land, Andrew Jackson signed the executive order known as the Specie Circular in , requiring sale of government land to be paid in gold and silver.
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Branch mints at New Orleans ; Dahlonega , Georgia; and Charlotte , North Carolina, were authorized by congress in and became operational in Gold was being withdrawn from the U. Canal projects began to fail. The result was the financial Panic of In there was a brief recovery. The business cycle upturn occurred in Economic historians have explored the high degree of financial and economic instability in the Jacksonian era. For the most part, they follow the conclusions of Peter Temin , who absolved Jackson's policies, and blamed international events beyond American control, such as conditions in Mexico, China and Britain.
A survey of economic historians in show that the vast majority concur with Temin's conclusion that "the inflation and financial crisis of the s had their origin in events largely beyond President Jackson's control and would have taken place whether or not he had acted as he did vis-a-vis the Second Bank of the U. The government was a very poor manager during the war, with delays in payments and confusion, as the Treasury took in money months after it was scheduled to pay it out. Inexperience, indecision, incompetence, partisanship and confusion the main hallmarks.
The federal government's management system was designed to minimize the federal role before The Republicans in power deliberately wanted to downsize the power and roles of the federal government; when the war began, the Federalist opposition worked hard to sabotage operations. Problems multiplied rapidly in , and all the weaknesses were magnified, especially regarding the Army and the Treasury.
There were no serious reforms before the war ended. Its absence made it much more difficult to handle the financing of the war, and cause special problems in terms of moving money from state to state, since state banks were not allowed to operate across state lines. The bureaucracy was terrible, often missing deadlines. On the positive side, over new state banks were created all over the country, and they issued notes that financed much of the war effort, along with loans raised by Washington.
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Some key Republicans, especially Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin realized the need for new taxes, but the Republican Congress was very reluctant and only raised small amounts. The whole time, the Federalists in Congress and especially the Federalist-controlled state governments in the Northeast, and the Federalist-aligned financial system in the Northeast, was strongly opposed to the war and refused to help in the financing. Across the two and half years of the war, —, the federal government took in more money than it spent. The economy grew every year —, despite a large loss of business by East Coast shipping interests.
Wartime inflation averaged 4. Per capita GDP grew at 2. The Boston Manufacturing Company built the first integrated spinning and weaving factory in the world at Waltham, Massachusetts, in The middle 19th century was a period of transition toward industrialization, particularly in the Northeast, which produced cotton textiles and shoes. The population of the West generally meaning from Ohio to and including Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri and south to include Kentucky grew rapidly. The West was primarily a grain and pork producing region, with an important machine tool industry developing around Cincinnati, Ohio.
The Southern economy was based on plantation agriculture, primarily cotton, tobacco and sugar, produced with slave labor. The market economy and factory system were not typical before , but developed along transportation routes. Steamboats and railroads, introduced in the early part of the century, became widespread and aided westward expansion.
A machine tool industry developed and machinery became a major industry. Sewing machines began being manufactured. The shoe industry became mechanized. Horse drawn reapers became widely introduced, significantly increasing the productivity of farming. The use of steam engines in manufacturing increased and steam power exceeded water power after the Civil War. The combination of railroads, the telegraph and machinery and factories began to create an industrial economy. The longest economic expansion of the United States occurred in the recession-free period between — Railroads opened up remote areas and drastically cut the cost of moving freight and passengers.
As transportation improved, new markets continuously opened. Railroads greatly increased the importance of hub cities such as Atlanta, Billings, Chicago, and Dallas. States awarded charters, funding, tax breaks, land grants, and provided some financing. Railroads were allowed banking privileges and lotteries in some states. Private investors provided a small but not insignificant share or railroad capital. Railroad executives invented modern methods for running large-scale business operations, creating a blueprint that all large corporations basically followed.
They created career tracks that took year-old boys and turned them into brakemen, conductors and engineers. Due to these radical innovations, the railroad became the first large-scale business enterprise and the model for most large corporations. The most important technological innovation in mid 19th century pig iron production was the adoption of hot blast , which was developed and patented in Scotland in Hot blast is a method of using heat from the blast furnace exhaust gas to preheat combustion air, saving a considerable amount of fuel.
It allowed much higher furnace temperatures and increased the capacity of furnaces. Hot blast allowed blast furnaces to use anthracite or lower grade coal. Anthracite was difficult to light with cold blast.
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High quality metallurgical coking coal deposits of sufficient size for iron making were only available in Great Britain and western Germany in the 19th century,  but with less fuel required per unit of iron, it was possible to use lower grade coal. The use of anthracite was rather short lived because the size of blast furnaces increased enormously toward the end of the century, forcing the use of coke , which was more porous and did not impede the upflow of the gases through the furnace. Charcoal would have been crushed by the column of material in tall furnaces.
Also, the capacity of furnaces would have eventually exceeded the wood supply, as happened with locomotives. Iron was used for a wide variety of purposes. In large consumers were numerous types of castings, especially stoves. The value added by stoves was equal to the value added by rails. Coal displaced wood during the mid-nineteenth century. In wood was the major fuel while coal production was minor. Wood was a byproduct of land clearing and was placed along the banks of rivers for steamboats.
By mid century the forests were being depleted while steamboats and locomotives were using enough wood to create shortages along their routes; however, railroads, canals and navigable internal waterways were able to bring coal to market at a price far below the cost of wood.
Coal sold in Cincinnati for 10 cents per bushel 94 pounds and in New Orleans for 14 cents. Charcoal production was very labor and land intensive. It was estimated that to fuel a typical sized ton of pig iron per week furnace in at a sustained yield, a timber plantation of 20, acres was required. The trees had to be hauled by oxen to where they were cut, stacked on end and covered with earth or put in a kiln to be charred for about a week. Manufacturing became well established during the mid 19th century.
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Labor in the U. In the early 19th century machinery was made mostly of wood with iron parts. By the mid century machines were being increasingly of all iron, which allowed them to operate at higher speeds and with higher precision. The demand for machinery created a machine tool industry that designed and manufactured lathes, metal planers, shapers and other precision metal cutting tools.
The shoe industry was the second to be mechanized, beginning in the s. Sewing machines were developed for sewing leather. A leather rolling machine eliminated hand hammering, and was thirty times faster. Blanchard lathes began being used for making shoe lasts forms in the s, allowing the manufacture of standard sizes. By the s much progress had been made in the development of the sewing machine , with a few companies making the machines, based on a number of patents, with no company controlling the right combination of patents to make a superior machine.
To prevent damaging lawsuits, in several important patents were pooled under the Sewing Machine Combination , which licensed the patents for a fixed fee per machine sold. The sewing machine industry was a beneficiary of machine tools and the manufacturing methods developed at the Federal Armories.
By two sewing machine manufacturers were using interchangeable parts. In the textile industry was the largest manufacturing industry in terms of workers employed mostly women and children , capital invest and value of goods produced. That year there were 5 million spindles in the U. The Treasury Department's steam engine report of was the most valuable survey of steam power until the Census. The Corliss steam engine , patented in , was called the most significant development in steam engineering since James Watt.